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  #1  
Old 10-28-2009, 09:49 AM
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Default Words and phrases

There is a member at PNW who knows Hebrew and Greek. He also teaches Greek.
He has a thread there which he post some of the words of the bible.
He has given permission to copy them.

Thought this would be real handy!

Many thanks to his hard work.
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Old 10-28-2009, 09:53 AM
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2Th 2:3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition;



Apostasy, rebellion, covenant breaking, divorce, defection, walking away, abandonment.

αποστασία - apostasia [noun]: "rebellion, defection, apostasy"

αποστασιον - apostasion [noun]: "abandonment, walking away, divorce"

αφίστημι - aphistemi [verb]: "to abandon, to walk away, to refuse to stand firm"

2 Thessalonians 2:3 -
International Standard Version:
  • Do not let anyone deceive you in any way, for that day cannot come unless the rebellion takes place first and the man of sin, who is destined for destruction, is revealed.
New American Standard Bible
  • Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the apostasy comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction
King James Version
  • Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition
  • Acts 21:20-21 And when they heard it, they glorified God. And they said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed. They are all zealous for the law, and they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children or walk according to our customs.

    Matthew 19:7 They said to him, "Why then did Moses command one to give a certificate of divorce and to send her away?"

    Luke 2:36-37 Now there was one, Anna, a prophetess, a daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was of a great age, and had lived with a husband seven years from her virginity; and she was a widow of about eighty-four years, who did not depart from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.

    Hebrews 3:12 Watch out, brothers, so that there won't be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart that departs from the living God.

    Acts 12:10 When they had passed the first and second guard, they came to the iron gate that leads into the city, which opened for them by itself; and they went out and went along one street, and immediately the angel departed from him.
Apostasia and apostasion are the feminine and neuter versions of the same word, but they are applied to different situations. They are the noun forms of the verb αφίστημι, which is formed from the words apo (away from) and histemi ("to make a stand, to stand firm, to be unwavering"). The primary difference between the nouns and the verb is that the verb can indicate EITHER PHYSICALLY walking away from an object (such as a house) with no moral implications of any kind OR violating a covenant, where the nouns are only used of walking away from a covenant.

Essentially, these two nouns mean "to walk away when we SHOULD stand firm" or "to abandon those whom we have pledged to stand with unwaveringly." Both words indicate that there was a covenant, and that the covenant has been intentionally and purposely severed by one party in the covenant. Apostasion is applied to abandoning lifelong human covenants (primarily marriage), and apostasia is applied to abandoning lifelong spiritual covenants (that is, intentionally severing a relationship with God, and thus, ABANDONING their salvation). Both are active, intentional, forceful words (one does not "accidentally" divorce a spouse - that is an intentional act that Jesus says is the result of a hard heart, likewise with apostasy).

The KJV translation is unfortunate on two accounts. First, in 2 Thessalonians the noun has the definite article attached to it, meaning it is not "A falling away," but rather, "THE falling away." And secondly, "falling away" is a passive expression in English, where this word is an ACTIVE, INTENTIONAL word in Greek. The KJV could leave the impression that someone might accidentally, or unintentionally "trip and fall." That is not what this word means. Apostasia means that the person knowingly and INTENTIONALLY turns their back, walks away, and completely abandons their covenant with God. "Rebellion," "Covenant Breaking," or "Abandoning" would be better translations.

Obviously, in the same way that you cannot get a divorce unless you are first married, you cannot walk away from a relationship with God unless you are first a believer.

This word clearly illustrates that one CAN intentionally cast away their own salvation. When a person commits "apostasion," (divorce,) obviously the two can be reconciled and remarried. However, the scriptures indicate that is not so with "apostasia." The following passage would now apply to those who have intentionally cast aside their covenant with God, abandoned their salvation, and no longer want anything to do with God.
  • Hebrews 6:4-6 For it is impossible, in the case of those who have once been enlightened, who have tasted the heavenly gift, and have shared in the Holy Spirit, and have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the age to come, and then have fallen away, to restore them again to repentance, since they are crucifying once again the Son of God to their own harm and holding him up to contempt.
The following scripture uses the VERB form of apostasia (aphistemi), showing the condition of the heart of a person who willfully and intentionally walks away from God:
  • 1 Timothy 4:1-3 Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons, through the insincerity of liars whose consciences are seared, who forbid marriage and require abstinence from foods that God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth.
In reference to the "once saved, always saved" debate, the use of these words show difinitively that one CAN abandon one's salvation intentionally. However, such abandoning does NOT happen accidentally, nor is it the result of what someone else has done, but is an intentional, defiant, rebellious act by a believer who has consciously chosen to abandon the faith in favor of pursuing sin.

And a person who does this is in DEEP spiritual do-do :wink: .

Grace and peace to you,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 09:55 AM
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elohim



God, gods, mighty, great, powerful, chief, judge, ruler

אל- "el": Strictly speaking, this word has a basic meaning of "mighty" (and it retains that meaning when used as an adjective), however, when used as a noun, it is a primary word that means "god."

אלהים - "elohim": The plural of "el." Since Hebrew, like many other languages, employs the "royal singular" (meaning it uses the PLURAL as a singular when referencing God or those in absolute power), elohim can mean "God" when speaking of the One True God, or "gods" when referencing false gods. This word is occasionally (I think twice) used of human judges from the idea that they are representing God and executing God's judgment, so when you appear before them, you are actually appearing before God.

Elohim is also applied occasionally to those who are speaking on behalf of the One True God (and could be applied to a prophet or angel in this manner), and to those who God has elevated so much in other people's eyes that they view that person with a sense of awe normally reserved only for God Himself.
  • Genesis 2:4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD [Yahweh] God made earth and heaven.

    Exodus 22:8 "If the thief is not caught, then the owner of the house shall appear before the judges, to determine whether he laid his hands on his neighbor's property. For every breach of trust, whether it is for ox, for donkey, for sheep, for clothing, or for any lost thing about which one says, 'This is it,' the case of both parties shall come before the judges; he whom the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor. - [this is probably more accurately translated "come before God" than "appear before the judges" on the idea that the judges are representing God and executing "God's judgment" not their own]

    Genesis 31:30 "Now you have indeed gone away because you longed greatly for your father's house; but why did you steal my gods?"

    Exo 12:12 'For I will go through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments--I am the LORD.

    Psalm 82:6-7 I said, "You are gods, And all of you are sons of the Most High. Nevertheless you will die like men And fall like any one of the princes."
Grace and peace,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 09:56 AM
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Meek, Gentle, Humble - praus (πραυς)


Matthew 5:5 Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.

Matthew 21:5 "Say to the daughter of Zion, 'Behold, your King is coming to you, humble, and sitting on a donkey, a colt, the foal of a donkey.' "

1 Peter 3:3-4 Do not let your adorning be external--the braiding of hair, the wearing of gold, or the putting on of clothing--but let your adorning be the hidden person of the heart with the imperishable beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which in God's sight is very precious.

This is one of those odd words for which we have no exact equivalent in English, so translators are stuck with using approximations. Part of the meaning of the word does contain the idea of "gentle," but that is not all it means. The actual idea is that the person who is "praus" has tremendous power, strength, intellect, or force of will, but has themselves so completely under control that they do no harm to anyone around them, even when provoked, hurt or insulted.

So a person who is "praus" is not being gentle because they are weak, or because their personality is one of meekness, but rather, they are being gentle because the CHOOSE to be, because they have the capability of being very forceful, powerful or strong. The best description might be "power under control," but that would be very awkward in a translation.

In Roman culture, this word was used of the Roman war horses. They were huge, powerful beasts who in a battle would stomp, kick, bite and trample any enemy in their path. They would run full speed into a wall of flame without hesitation, and were so inclinded to stomp and trample those in their path that it was not unheard of for the horse to kill more enemies than the rider. These SAME horses were so well trained and so well controlled that when the army came into a city, children could pet them, and give them treats without fear of harm.

War horses who were that dangerous and powerful in combat, yet so completely under control that children need not fear being harmed in peaceful situations were called "praus." They were gentle because they had their great power under complete control, NOT because they were weak, shy, retiring, or had a nature that was just naturally one of gentleness.

Thus it is in these verses above. They are references to individuals who are very powerful (the "strength" or "power" could be physcial, emotional, social, political, spiritual, or whatever), but CHOOSE to use that power with great control, with great gentleness, so that their entire lives become forces for healing, nurturing, and tenderness rather than for disruption, destruction, or pain.

These are the people who are powerful enough to break you in half, yet CHOOSE to turn the other cheek when you strike them. These are the people who are smart enough to rip you to shreds with their intellect, yet CHOOSE to respond with gentle and kind words when they are taunted or insulted. These are the people who have the political or social connections to utterly dismantle or destroy your life, yet CHOOSE to use those connections only for good, no matter how much you try to hurt or slander them.

When we give grace to those who deserve to be slapped, forgive those who only want to hurt us, and show kindness to those who only show us hatefulness, we are being "praus." When we return a kind word for an insult, when we are simply nice to those who vehemently disagree with us, when we see through all of that to the valuable, precious person underneath, and treat them accordingly no matter how they act, we are being "praus."

May the grace of God shine through each of you so that you are always "praus."

Grace and peace to you all,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 09:57 AM
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Default Prince, Author, Captain, Source, Pioneer, Leader

Prince, Author, Captain, Source, Pioneer, Leader



archegos (αρχηγος)
  • Hebrews 12:2 looking unto Jesus, the Author and Perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.

    Acts 3:14-15 You rejected the Holy and Righteous One and asked to have a murderer given to you, and you killed the source of life, whom God raised from the dead. We are witnesses to that.

    Act 5:31 God has exalted to his right hand this very man as our Leader and Savior in order to give repentance and forgiveness of sins to Israel.

    Heb 2:10 In bringing many children to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through suffering.
Here is another word for which we do not have any exact translation, so it is always a struggle to find the right word. Basically, an archegos did three things:
  • (1) He went ahead of everyone else as a scout and trail blazer to find and create the path that those behind would be following. He would also frequently go back to lead those who were following along the trail he had created (scout, pioneer).

    (2) Once he found what he was looking for, he created a settlement so that those who followed would have a place to live once they arrived (author, founder, source).

    (3) After everyone else began arriving, the archegos remained to provide both leadership and protection for the pilgrims who chose to follow his path and settle in his outpost (prince, captain, leader).
We have no word that exactly describes all three of these things, so different translations would usually have to pick one, and go with that for any given passage. A quick sampling of various versions shows how different scholars seized upon different parts of the meaning (using Hebrews 12:2 as the example)
  • KJV - Looking unto Jesus the author (#2) and finisher of our faith
    ALT - looking with undivided attention to the Originator (#2) and Perfecter of [our] faith
    BBE - Having our eyes fixed on Jesus, the guide (#1) and end of our faith,
    Bishops - Looking unto Jesus, the captain (#3) and finisher of our faith
    Darby - looking stedfastly on Jesus the leader (#3) and completer of faith:
    ESV - looking to Jesus, the founder (#2) and perfecter of our faith,
    HCSB - keeping our eyes on Jesus, the source (#2) and perfecter of our faith,
    ISV - looking off to Jesus, the pioneer (#1) and perfecter of the faith,
    Murdock - And let us look on Jesus, who hath become the commencement (#1) and the completion of our faith
    WNT - simply fixing our gaze upon Jesus, our Prince Leader (#3) in the faith

It is interesting to note that this word is ONLY used of Jesus in the NT. It means that Jesus forged ahead to blaze a trail for us to follow in our faith (death and resurrection), that He then established and founded the place where we are to live in our faith (grace, holiness, love), and that He remains to watch over and lead us in our faith (Lord and God).

In the four scriptures where this word appears, Jesus is called the archegos of our faith, the archegos of life, the archegos of salvation, and the archegos of repentance and forgiveness.

Which drives home the fact that NONE of these were within our reach until Jesus created the trail that leads to them, provided the means to reach them, and then remaining with us to guide us, establish us, and protect us as we dwell in, mature in, and become each of these (repentance, forgiveness, salvation, faith, life).

Is it any wonder that scriptures tell us there is no other name under heaven by which we might be saved! What other route to salvation could possibly provide all of THAT?

Grace and peace to you all,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 09:58 AM
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New Creature



kaine ktisis (καινη κτισις)
  • 2 Corinthians 5:17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come.

    Galatians 6:15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision means anything, but a new creation.

    Matthew 9:17 Nor do they put new wine into old wineskins, or else the wineskins burst, and the wine spills out, and the wineskins will be ruined. But they put new wine into new wineskins, and both are preserved."

    1 Corinthians 11:25 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me."

    Mark 10:6 But from the beginning of the creation, God 'made them male and female.'

    Mark 13:19 For in those days will be tribulation, such as there has not been the like from the beginning of creation which God created until now, and never again shall be.

    Romans 8:20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but on account of Him who subjected it in hope;

    Col 1:23 if indeed you continue in the faith, having been founded and firm and not drifting away from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which was proclaimed to all creation under heaven, of which I, Paul, became a minister.

    1 Peter 2:13 Therefore subject yourselves to every human institution on account of the Lord: whether to the king as to one having authority,

The lexical form of "kaine" is "kainos" (καινος), so that is how I will be referencing it.

The first two scriptures are kainos and ktisis used together. The next two are kainos alone, the last four are ktisis alone.

There are two words in Greek that can be translated "new": kainos and neos (νεος).

Neos primarily means "youth," and refers to something that is new by the standard of AGE (so neos would be the word used for a "new born").

Kainos, the word used here, references something that is new because it is fresh (a vegetable "fresh" out of the garden), unblemished (a new sheet of paper), unused (a brand new car) or unworn (a new shirt) . . . or even unheard of (a new idea).

ktisis means "a fabrication, a creation, a created thing, (when used of human creation) government."

It only means "creature" from the original derivative (a creature is a living, and thus, "created" thing). When used of something GOD has created, it references only LIVING things (not, for example, the dirt, or the light, or the water, etc.).

When used of human creations, the culturally accepted use was only to use this particular word in referencing "something created by men to govern people," that is, any kind of human government. Physical things that were created by people were "inventions," not "creations."

This means that when a person believes in Jesus, they become, in God's eyes, a fresh, unblemished, unmarred creation of God with no stain of sin remaining upon them. From God's perspective, their sinful, blemished life up to that point didn't even happen to them, it happened to someone else. They are a brand new creation that has never existed before, and has no blemishes.

The important thing to note here is that this is NOT saying that only those who FIRST come to Christ are like that (and they gradually become corrupted again), but that those who are IN Christ are like that all the time. All those in a state of being "in Christ" are also in a state of being unblemished in God's eyes. This is referencing a constant state of being clean and unblemished, NOT because of what we DO, but because of who we draw close to and have faith in.

In other words, this verse is another way of saying, "Righteousness comes from FAITH in Jesus, and is a gift of GRACE, not as a result of any actions on our part."

Galatians 6:15 is a startling statement. It lets us know that being in Christ has nothing to do with obeying the little commands and rules of the law. The law (that is, the rules and commands of the law) is MEANINGLESS. Keeping the law is just as meaningless as not keeping the law. The word construction literally says that whether you are or are not circumcized (that being a command in the law), literally MEANS and ACCOMPLISHES NOTHING.

Being in Christ is NOT about being a law keeper, it is about being an unblemished, spotless creation in God's eyes and thus receiving a new HEART.

Whether you do or don't keep the law has no bearing on whether you are a new creation in Christ. All that matters is are you drawing close to Jesus and placing your faith in Him.

He will then make you a new, unblemished creation, and will begin to change you from the inside out. The EFFECT will be that you will gradually sin less and less (as Christ's character becomes your character), but that is a SIDE EFFECT, not a CAUSE. You are no less or more "new" as you become a mature believer and sin less than you were when you were an immature believer and sinned more. So long as your faith is in Jesus, you ARE an unblemish, brand new creation.

This means that if we are believers, we do not lose our unblemished state (in other words, we do not lose our salvation) each time we commit a sin, as our unblemished state is a function of FAITH and GRACE, not WORKS. God is patient with us, and molds us from the inside out, gradually changing our character to conform to His own. As He does this, we actually lose our desire to commit some sins, and so, we sin less. But this process does not make us MORE saved. We are just as saved as a brand new baby Christian as we will be thirty years down the road when we have overcome many of the sins that beset us as new believers.

Bottom line: You GAIN your salvation by grace through faith (NOT as a result of works) and you KEEP your salvation by grace through faith (NOT as a result of works).

It should be noted, however, that breaking many of the laws of God has OTHER effects in your life (it does not change your standing before the Lord, but it can destroy the relationships in your life, and crumble your life around you). The VALUE of God's commands are NOT in making us righteous, they are in helping us live peaceful, loving, productive lives in which we are not hurting ourselves and those around us, and thus, we are not wasting much of our lives "cleaning up the messes" we create around us. We can spend our lives MINISTERING, shining God's love into the lives of others, rather than repairing fractured relationships, rebuilding damaged homes, paying legal penalties, and so on.

The moral law of God pretty much serves the same purpose in our lives that the rules and regulations we give our children serve in their lives. Our rules don't "make" the little people in our homes our children, nor do they ensure that those little people "remain" our children. Whether or not my son breaks a rule has nothing to do with whether or not he remains my son. But it can have a HUGE effect on the kind of life he leads as an adult. If we teach them well, and they learn to live the principles and rules we have given them, they can lead very stable, very productive lives (both from a ministry standpoint and from a social standpoint).

And so it is with us and God.

Grace and peace to you all,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 09:59 AM
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Life



dzoe (ζωη)

The are four Greek words that can be translated "life," depending, as always, upon context.

The first is bios (βιος), which primarily references PHYSICAL life, and by extension, those things about our life that are purely physcial. All that is necessary for one to have bios is to be breathing and have a heart beat. A person on a resperator with no discernable brain waves would still have bios:
  • Luke 8:14 And as for what fell among the thorns, they are those who hear, but as they go on their way they are choked by the cares and riches and pleasures of life, and their fruit does not mature.
All humans have bios, and just as we do in English, the first century believers also used this word to describe the parts of one's daily activities that helped secure our physical life, such as any activity we use to produce an income:
  • Luke 8:43 And there was a woman who had had a discharge of blood for twelve years, and though she had spent all her living on physicians, she could not be healed by anyone.
The second word that can be translated "life" is psuche (ψυχη). This is 5590 in Strong's Concordance, and in his entry you will read, "From G5594; breath, that is, (by implication) spirit..." As good as Dr. Strong was, he did make occasional mistakes, and this is an example where he is simply wrong. Psuche does NOT ever mean "spirit," but rather, his entry should read "breath, that is, (by implication) soul..."

The fundamental meaning of this word is "breath," and so, upon occasion, it references the purely PHYSICAL life of a person (the kind they have by simply breathing).
  • Matthew 2:20 saying, "Rise, take the child and his mother and go to the land of Israel, for those who sought the child's life are dead."
MOST of the time, it references the part of a person's internal, spiritual being called the soul (visualized as that part of a person's spiritual life that is the seat of emotions, that has been corrupted by sin, and that gives life to a physcial body). Most uses of psuche in the New Testament reference it as a source of physical life, as the sin-corrupted part of a person, or as the seat of human emotions, and is often contrasted with the "spirit."
  • John 15:13 Greater love has no one than this, that someone lays down his life for his friends.

    1 Corinthians 15:45 Thus also it is written, "The first man Adam became a living soul;" the last Adam became a life-giving spirit.

    Act s2:27 For you will not abandon my soul to Hades, or let your Holy One see corruption.
From a spiritual standpoint, a soul serves the purpose of giving life to a physical body, and therefore, all animal life has a soul, however a soul by itself is not eternal. Only those beings who also have a SPIRIT have any kind of eternal life after the death of the body. So a soul alone grants physcial life, but ceases to exist after the death of the body (animals are occasionally said to have souls, but are NEVER mentioned having spirits). A spirit alone means the being is eternal, but has never had a natural, physical body (i.e. an angel), and a soul/spirit combination (only found in humans among created beings) grants BOTH life to the body, and continuing existence after the death of the body.

As with people, God is referenced as having both spirit and soul, but seeing as how He is not a created being, and is so completely beyond us, even in the nature of His being (such as being Father, Son and Holy Spirit, but only being ONE God), there is no way to know for sure if that usage is symbolic, if it points to God as the source of even physical life, or if it means something else.

The third word occasionally translated "life" is pneuma (πνευμα). Strictly speaking, this word means "to blow, wind" (and is used specifically of "wind" several times in the NT), but it's primary application is as "spirit," and it is the most common of these four words in the NT, although it is used in a context meaning "life" very rarely.
  • John 3:8 The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear its sound, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit."
It is visualized as the seat of human THOUGHT, and is occasionally translated "mind." It is frequently used of a person's entire "attitude, mind set and resulting behavior" (i.e. spirit of fear, spirit of gentleness, etc.). It is also referenced as the portion of the human "spiritual body" that communicates with God.

This is the word used of the "Holy Spirit," and is one of the most common references to God's active working in our lives:
  • Acts 2:17 "'And in the last days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams;

    Galatians 3:2 Let me ask you only this: Did you receive the Spirit by works of the law or by hearing with faith?

    Revelation 13:15 And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.
And of course, pneuma is the word most often used to indicate what it is that grants us REAL life (that is, zdoe):
  • 2 Corinthians 3:6 Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.
The fourth word translated "life" is dzoe. This is by far the most common word for "life" in the New Testament. It can reference either the natural life of a human being (although even in this context, it refers to how you LIVE your life, not just to the physical life itself), or to that kind of life that is BEYOND physical life - the kind that could be called "really living, really being alive." In this last context, it becomes synonymus with "eternal life," and references the kind of life that springs from the spirit (not the body), and can only be obtained from faith in God, and can only be "powered" or "maintained" by Jesus. As such, it is the only word for life that is commonly linked to the Greek word meaning "eternal or everlasting."

C. S. Lewis described the difference between "bios" and "dzoe" as: "it's like humanity is a museum filled with statues of people, and there is a rumor going around that some of the statues are coming to life."

One could say that everyone is alive (bios), but not everyone truly LIVES (dzoe)!

Bolded words below are the noun form (dzoe), underlined words are the verb form (dzao).
  • John 1:4 In Him was life, and the life was the light of men.

    John 3:36 He who believes in the Son has eternal life; and he who does not believe the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him."

    John 6:32-33 Jesus then said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world."

    John 6:35 Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst.

    John 6:40 For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him should have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day."

    John 6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh."

    Romans 5:10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, now that we are reconciled, shall we be saved by his life.

    Romans 5:20-21 Now the law came in to increase the trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

    1 Corinthians 15:16-19 For if the dead are not raised, not even Christ has been raised. And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile and you are still in your sins. Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished. If in this life only we have hoped in Christ, we are of all people most to be pitied.

Grace and peace,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 10:03 AM
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Default Shalom - peace

H7965 Shalowm
H3073 Y@hovahshalowm
H7999 Shalam
H8000 Sh@lam (Aramaic)
H8001 Sh@lam (Aramaic)
H8002 Shelem
H8003 Shalem
H8004 Shalem (name)
H8005 Shillem
H8006 Shillem (name)




Peace, To be Complete, To be sound, To be safe

Shalam - (שלם)

The thing to keep in mind with these words is that they are all spelled exactly the same way (Hebrew has no vowels as "letters") in the original text. Thus, the only way to tell the difference between them was from context, as the vowel and accent points we now use were invented by the Masoretics, well over a thousand years AFTER the OT was written (even today in Israel, it is not uncommon for people to write Hebrew without vowel points, and almost all public use of Hebrew, such as on street signs, billboards, etc. is without vowel points).

That being the case, the spelling on all but a few of them are identical. That means that the only way to tell the difference between 7965, 7999, 8000, 8001, 8002, 8003, 8004, 8005, and 8006 (these are Strong's numbers) would be context, as they are all spelled שלם (the exception is 7965, pronounced Shalom, which also has a variant spelling of שלום).

First point to note: with the exception of 7965, which has a variant spelling, we do not actually know if these words were originally pronounced exactly the same, of if a thousand years before the Mesoretics put vowel points on them, the Jews used the context to give them different pronunciations. What we do know is that if you just wrote the word שלם with no context, it was assumed to be the root word, which we now consider to be shalam (7999). If you wanted to write just one word, and you wanted the reader to assume it was the most common form of the word (the one used as a greeting), it would be written שלום - shalom, which is probably why that particular form has a variant spelling (so it could be distinguished when written with no context).

The reality probably was that originally all of these were the same word, which was used in a wide number of contexts, and its meaning varied depending on the context. Today, we separate them as different words using vowel points to distinguish them.

These words derive from the root which means "To be complete, to be whole, to be sound." From that idea comes the Jewish concept of "peace," that being true peace is a state of completeness, soundness, or wholeness. If something in your life is fractured, or broken, you cannot have peace (the NT concept of peace is based on a different idea, that peace is a lack of turbulence, not a function of being whole).

Since the Jews were less philosophical (than the Greeks), and tended to be fairly practical minded, this idea of completeness or wholeness usually meant "prosperity or welfare" in practical application. That is, wholeness and peace meant prosperous and safe from harm in daily life. The practical Jewish mind decided that you cannot have peace if you are starving, or deeply in debt, have suffered injury, or if something has been taken from you unjustly. Further, if you have suffered violence or theft, your life is no longer "whole," so the only way to return that "peace" to your life is for the culprit to make recompence (payment) for what they took from you (thus all the laws on restitution in the OT).

This also meant that if you were a "peaceful" person, you were prosperous and safe in your own home, and no one would suffer harm or loss at your hands.

So with that basis, we can examine the variances of meaning in how this word was used.

First, it was used to indicate that something was complete, whole, or "not broken." From this derives the idea of what it will take to "restore wholeness," which translated in practical life to "restitution, repayment, recompence." And you can prevent harm or loss by making a "peace covenant" in advance (7999). The Aramaic word corresponding to 7999 is 8000.
  • Nehemiah 6:15 So the wall was completed on the twenty-fifth of the month Elul, in fifty-two days.

    Exodus 21:33-34 "If a man opens a pit, or digs a pit and does not cover it over, and an ox or a donkey falls into it, the owner of the pit shall make restitution; he shall give money to its owner, and the dead animal shall become his.

    Job 9:4 God is wise and all-powerful. Who has opposed Him and come out unharmed?

    Psalm 76:11 Make vows to the LORD your God and fulfill them; Let all who are around Him bring gifts to Him who is to be feared.

    Deuteronomy 20:10-12 "When you approach a city to fight against it, you shall offer it terms of peace. If it agrees to make peace with you and opens to you, then all the people who are found in it shall become your forced labor and shall serve you. However, if it does not make peace with you, but makes war against you, then you shall besiege it."

    2 Samuel 20:19 "I am of those who are peaceable and faithful in Israel. You are seeking to destroy a city, even a mother in Israel. Why would you swallow up the inheritance of the LORD?"
When you make a "peace covenant," it would often need to be sealed with a "peace offering" or "covenant sacrifice," so this word also indicated the offering or sacrifice that was used to seal the deal. Jesus is, of course, the ultimate and final peace offering (8002).
  • Num 6:14 'He shall present his offering to the LORD: one male lamb a year old without defect for a burnt offering and one ewe-lamb a year old without defect for a sin offering and one ram without defect for a peace offering
By extension, then, this word referenced a person of whom no one has anything to fear. If your are a peaceful person, you have done no harm to anyone, and have no plans to do harm to someone, then this word applied to you. Likewise, if you were a person who made things whole or a peacemaker, then this word applied to you, and by extension, that act of making things whole (full of peace) was this as well (8003).
  • 2 Chronicles 15:17 But the high places were not removed from Israel; nevertheless Asa's heart was blameless all his days.

    1 Chronicles 12:38 All these, men of war, arrayed in battle order, came to Hebron with full intent to make David king over all Israel. Likewise, all the rest of Israel were of a single mind to make David king.

    The more LITERAL translation of this verse would be:

    1 Chronicles 12:38 All these, being men of war who could draw up in battle formation, came to Hebron with a perfect heart to make David king over all Israel; and all the rest also of Israel were of one mind to make David king.

    Genesis 34:21 "These men are friendly with us; therefore let them live in the land and trade in it, for behold, the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters in marriage, and give our daughters to them.

    2 Chronicles 8:16 Thus all the work of Solomon was carried out from the day of the foundation of the house of the LORD, and until it was finished. So the house of the LORD was completed.
There is one reference in the OT where God uses this word to indicate that HE will repay someone for their evil behavior (from the idea that they WILL pay for what they have done), and this usage is separated out to a "different" word (same spelling), as 8005.
  • Deuteronomy 32:35 'Vengeance is Mine, and retribution, In due time their foot will slip; For the day of their calamity is near, And the impending things are hastening upon them.'
The most common usage of this word was in the greeting and simple idea of "peace," which is the word we recognize as Shalom. It appears this way in scripture hundreds of times.

When this form was being used, particularly if the context was not sufficient to make it clear, it is often found in the alternate spelling of שלום. This was the common greeting among the Jews, and was used both when first greeting someone, and when leaving them (in much the same way that we say "hello" or "goodbye"), and indicated that you were wishing them peace and prosperity, as well as indicating that you posed no threat. It also was used to describe a state of peace, prosperity and safety (the three had to go hand in hand, or you did not have true shalom).

The Aramaic word corresponding to this is 8001.
  • Deuteronomy 20:10-12 "When you approach a city to fight against it, you shall offer it terms of peace. If it agrees to make peace with you and opens to you, then all the people who are found in it shall become your forced labor and shall serve you. However, if it does not make peace with you, but makes war against you, then you shall besiege it."

    1 Samuel 17:22 Then David left his baggage in the care of the baggage keeper, and ran to the battle line and entered in order to greet his brothers.

    Psalm 38:3 There is no soundness in my flesh because of Your indignation; There is no health in my bones because of my sin.

    Genesis 15:15 "As for you, you shall go to your fathers in peace; you will be buried at a good old age.

    Joshua 10:20-21 It came about when Joshua and the sons of Israel had finished slaying them with a very great slaughter, until they were destroyed, and the survivors who remained of them had entered the fortified cities, that all the people returned to the camp to Joshua at Makkedah in peace. No one uttered a word against any of the sons of Israel.

    2 Kings 20:19 Then Hezekiah said to Isaiah, "The word of the LORD which you have spoken is good." For he thought, "Is it not so, if there will be peace and truth in my days?"

    Job 21:9 Their houses are safe from fear, And the rod of God is not on them.

    1 Samuel 20:12-13 Then Jonathan said to David, "The LORD, the God of Israel, be witness! When I have sounded out my father about this time tomorrow, or the third day, behold, if there is good feeling toward David, shall I not then send to you and make it known to you? If it please my father to do you harm, may the LORD do so to Jonathan and more also, if I do not make it known to you and send you away, that you may go in safety. And may the LORD be with you as He has been with my father.

    Genesis 37:14 Then he said to him, "Go now and see about the welfare of your brothers and the welfare of the flock, and bring word back to me." So he sent him from the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.
There is a man in the OT with this as a name (usually pronounce Shillem - 8006).
  • Genesis 46:24 The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel and Guni and Jezer and Shillem.
There is also an altar in the OT that is called "Yahweh is Peace" or "Jehovah is Peace" (depending on your transliteration preference), and uses shalom (with the alternate spelling) as part of the title - יהוה שלום. Strictly speaking, this is two words, not one, but Strong listed it separately as one word (3037 - I suppose on the idea that it was one title).
  • Judges 6:24 Then Gideon built an altar there to the LORD and named it The LORD is Peace. To this day it is still in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.
It is also the name of a city - Salem, meaning "peace." The name of this city was later expanded out to "Foundation of Peace," which is the city we know as Jerusalem (it is pronounced Yerushalaim or Yerushalayim in Hebrew), and is found with two alternate spellings in the OT - ירושלם and ירושלים.
  • Genesis 14:18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; now he was a priest of God Most High.

    1 Kings 2:11 The days that David reigned over Israel were forty years: seven years he reigned in Hebron and thirty-three years he reigned in Jerusalem.
Hope this helps with your study.

Grace and peace to you,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 10:04 AM
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Default Carpenter

carpenter


Craftsman, poet, songwriter, builder, artificer, carpenter

teknon (τεκνων)

The word appears only two times in the Bible, Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3. It is an ancient word, and comes from a root meaning "to skillfully produce." It's general meaning is simply "craftsman," and was applied to a wide variety of occupations in ancient Greek culture, including any kind of builder (carpenter, stone mason, etc.) as well as any person who crafts things in any field, including poetry, music, art, archetecture, ship building, etc.

So strickly speaking, the word simply means "craftsman," and gives us no information as to the TYPE of craftsman. However, there is some extra-biblical evidence that during the first century, this word had become somewhat more specialized in meaning, and was generally applied to carpenters alone, particularly since almost all other crafts had specialized Greek words to describe them, but carpentry did not (so if He WAS a carpenter, this was the ONLY word available to describe his occupation).

All we can say with absolute certainty, is that Jesus was a craftsman, the son of a craftsman. What we can say based on its usage in other documents from that era is that the MOST LIKELY craft that Jesus was involved in was carpentry. It is actually unlikely that Jesus was a stone mason because a different word was applied to them during the first century.

Personally, I think just calling Jesus a "craftsman" is kind of cool. Look what He continues to "craft" in all our lives! Truly that was the one trade that would fit what He would do for all of us for all time: craft us into the people we were meant to be.

Grace and peace,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 10:06 AM
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Default Gifts of healing - I Cor. 12:9

Quote:
I Corinthians 12
8For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit;
9 To another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit;

Many refer to this as the "gift of healing" , yet I heard a person say that in the Greek it more closely comes out as a double plural, namely "Gifts of Healings". it would seem that Gifts of Healings would have a different implication than the expression "gift of healing".

That is to say, God does not give the "gift of healing" to any man, there is only one healer, but rather the Spirit as He chooses may manifest "Gifts of healings" to afflicted people.

I did notice that in Young's Literal Translation, he does go with the double plural.

What's your take on the Greek in I Corinthians 12:9?
Gifts of healings

allo de charismata iamaton (αλλω δε χαρισματα ιαματων)

Good observation!

Whenever I look up a verse that I have not read in Greek before, I play this little game with myself where I quess what the actual Greek will look like (from the assumption that the most common English translation is accurate, and there are no hidden meanings). If I am wrong in my guess, that means there is more going on in the Greek than is indicated in the English. I figured there were four possible ways for this phrase to be written (not including such subtlties as variations in the attributive position), and in order for the most common translation to be correct, the Greek would have to be the first one in the list.
  • allo de to charisma iamatos (and to another the gift of healing)

    allo de charismata iamatos (and to another, gifts of healing)

    allo de to charisma iamaton (and to another, the gift of healings)

    allo de charismata iamaton (and to another, gifts of healings)
The first is nominative singular and genitive singular with the definite article. This is how the phrase should appear in order for most translations to be completely accurate. This would indicate one gift of healing (presumably a generic gift to cover all types of healing).

The second is nominative plural and genitive singular, indicating multiple different variations of a central gift: healing.

The third is nominative singular and genitive plural, which would emphasize that one gift that covers a wide latitude of different kinds of healing.

The last, and the one that actually appears in the text, is nominative plural and genitive plural, indicating a wide variety of gifts relating to a wide variety of different types of healing.

The root word translated "healing" means "to completely cure, to make whole, to heal." That does NOT indicate a variety of different diseases, but a variety of AREAS. This is the only place that this particular word for healing appears in the NT, and it is a specialized word indicating "a specific act of curing or making whole" and by being in the plural, it would seem to indicate there were different "kinds" or "types" of "curing" or "making whole." This is the word we would use to say that we have found a "cure for cancer," as opposed to claiming to have a means of curing all ailments (Dr. Lightning's All Purpose Curing Elixer).

However, since scripture doesn't really distinguish between PHYSICAL diseases (from a healing standoint), but it DOES distinguish between disease and mental illness, the most likely division here is that one gift specializes in making people PHYSICALLY WHOLE, while another specializes in making them MENTALLY WHOLE, while another specializes in making them EMOTIONALLY WHOLE, while another specializes in making them SPIRITUALLY WHOLE (corresponding to the four words used to describe the four areas of our life as it applies to loving God: with all our HEART - emotional, SOUL - spiritual, MIND - mental, and STRENGTH - physical).

And of course, there might be overlaps (i.e. making a person physically whole heals them mentally as well, etc.). Finally, the fact that "allo" (to another) is singular, rather than plural (to others) indicates that ONE person can have multiple gifts of healing.

No matter what the interpretation, the correct rendering is "gifts of healings" not "the gift of healing."

Just for the sake of being complete, here is the entire "gift" list showing singulars and plurals:
  • 1) A word of wisdom (indicating a single "message," not a single word)
    2) A word of knowledge (again, message not word)
    3) Faith (singular)
    4) Gifts of healings
    5) Operations of miraculous powers
    6) Prophecy (singular)
    7) Discernings of spirits
    8) Kinds of languages (tongues)
    9) Translation (singular) of languages (plural)
As I was reading this list, something caught my attention. Greek has two words for "other, another." The first is "allos" and means "another of the same kind"; the second is "eteros" and means "another of a different kind." If I have an apple, and I ask for an "allos," you would give me another apple, but if I asked for an "eteros," you would give me another fruit of a different kind, such as an orange or banana.

Secondly, if people were walking through the front door, using "allos" would simply tell me that "another person" came in the front (they could be the same person who had previously come in the front door at a different time or different day). Using "eteros" would emphasize that the person who came through the door was a DIFFERENT person from the rest.

Having said that, most of the "anothers" in this list are "allos" (simply another person), but TWO of them are prefaced with "eteros" (a DIFFERENT person): #3, faith; and #8, languages (tongues).

The only thing that really makes sense here is that he is emphasizing with these two gifts in particular, that a DIFFERENT person is given this gift (because those TWO particular gifts have often been classified as gifts that "everyone" gets). In other words, this entire list is of gifts given to different people, but on two of them, he used extra emphasis to point out that not everyone gets these gifts.

Some people have the gift of faith, some do not. Some people have the gift of different kinds of tongues, some do not. While this is true of all the gifts, it is EMPHASIZED for two of them.

Grace and peace,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 10:07 AM
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Default Love, affection

Love, affection

agape (αγαπη) - love in action, sacrificial love, DOING love, performing a loving act. While this word MAY include "feelings" of love, it primarily references BEHAVIOR that is caring and loving.

philia (φιλια) - Affection, love, tenderness, friendship. While this word MAY include behavior, it primarily references the "feelings" of affection or love.

Joh n21:15-17 So when they had finished breakfast, Jesus *said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love Me more than these?" He *said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I love You." He *said to him, "Tend My lambs." He *said to him again a second time, "Simon, son of John, do you love Me?" He *said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I love You." He *said to him, "Shepherd My sheep." He *said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love Me?" Peter was grieved because He said to him the third time, "Do you love Me?" And he said to Him, "Lord, You know all things; You know that I love You." Jesus *said to him, "Tend My sheep.

This is a tricky passage to fully understand in English, as the word play in the Greek does not come through. I'm going to post it again, except this time I'm going to substitute "love" with the appropriate Greek word.

Joh n21:15-17 So when they had finished breakfast, Jesus *said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you AGAPE Me more than these?" He *said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I PHILIA You." He *said to him, "Tend My lambs." He *said to him again a second time, "Simon, son of John, do you AGAPE Me?" He *said to Him, "Yes, Lord; You know that I PHILIA You." He *said to him, "Shepherd My sheep." He *said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you PHILIA Me?" Peter was grieved because He said to him the third time, "Do you PHILIA Me?" And he said to Him, "Lord, You know all things; You know that I PHILIA You." Jesus *said to him, "Tend My sheep.

This is an interesting exchange, primarily because Peter keeps intentionally switching words on Jesus. Jesus asks him about agape, and Peter answers with philia.

The irony is that Peter actually thought that philia was SUPERIOR to agape. To him, agape was nothing more than a fake action devoid of truth, because there were no deep emotions attached to it. What was TRUE was what you FELT!!! If you did agape, you were FAKING it, because you didn't really FEEL anything for the person. So when Jesus asked him about "agape," Peter thought he was responding with a SUPERIOR answer. It was almost as though Peter thought Jesus was asking, "would your rate your love for me as a FIVE," and Peter was responding, "No, I would rate my love as a TEN!"

But in the process, Peter was completely missing the point Jesus was making: EMOTIONS cannot be commanded, but BEHAVIOR can. I cannot order my daughter to FEEL affectionate for the little girl who teases her . . . but I CAN demand that she treat that little girl with courtesy, respect and gentleness. Real love, the kind that makes a difference in the world, is the kind that is founded upon what you DO, not what you FEEL.

The problem is that Peter wasn't getting it.

So Jesus switched tactics, and the third time, He used Peter's word, philia, and asked, "Do you REALLY have all that affection for me?"

Peter was hurt by that question (because he STILL didn't get it). Peter was an emotional dude, and he had just claimed to have philia for Jesus twice. But Jesus wasn't really asking about Peter's feelings, He was trying to drive home the point, "Do you FEEL affection for me? Fine. That's Great. Then SHOW it by what you DO!"

And this, more than anything else, is the central message of Jesus: DO love for others. On one occasion, Jesus summed up the law and the prophets with two love commands (love God, love your neighbor). On another occasion, Jesus summerized THOSE two love commands with ONE (treat others as you wish to be treated), which defined "loving" God and others as how you TREAT other people: ACTIONS.

THIS is how it is possible to love your enemies: it doesn't matter what you feel about them, it matters what you DO to them. Treat them with tenderness and respect, forgive them for the harm they have done to you, and THAT will allow them to see the God of the universe shining through you.

Remember this in your marriages, your friendships, your interactions with other believers, and your encounters with strangers: real love is not about what you feel, it is about forgiving when what they deserve is condemnation and judgment. It is about serving others, even if they treat you with disrespect and arrogance. It is about responding with soft, kind words, even when they are cutting, insulting and hateful. It is about determining that you will do no harm, no matter how much they do to you. It is about refusing to let others rob you of the honor and priveledge of showing them tenderness and courtesy whether they deserve it or not.

THAT is how we show we are Christians by our love.

Grace and Peace to you all,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 10:08 AM
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Default Jesus is God

God and Savior, Jesus Christ

  • Titus 2:13 looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus...
[bolded portion] - του μεγαλου θεου και σωτηρος ημων Ιησου Χριστου
  • 2 Peter 1:1 Simon Peter, a bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have received a faith of the same kind as ours, by the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ
[bolded portion] - του θεου ημων και σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστου

These clauses follow the pattern:

[article] [noun] "and" [noun] [Person]

The rule that applies to this construction is called "Granville Sharp's Rule" [named after the first person in modern times to identify this rule of Greek syntax - which he first published in a pamphlet in 1798].

The rule is when you have two singular nouns, which are not proper names (such as Bob or Jim), which are describing a person, and the two nouns are connected by the conjunction "and," and the first noun has the article ("the") while the second does not, both nouns are referring to the same person.

In the two clauses above, the word "του" ("the") is the article and the word "και" ("and") is the conjunction. In both, the first noun is "θεου" ("God") and the second noun is "σωτηρος" ("savior"). The first clause includes the adjective "μεγαλου" ("great") between the article and the noun, placing it in the "attributive position," and thus making it gramatically part of the noun. Both include the pronoun "ημων" ("our") which can appear anywhere in the clause. The person is, of course, "Ιησου Χριστου" ("Jesus Christ").

Here is the really cool part: This rule has NO EXCEPTIONS IN ANY GREEK LITERATURE! Those who doubt the deity of Jesus have been trying for more than 200 years to find at least ONE exception to this rule so that they can claim Peter and Paul are NOT calling Jesus God. None have ever been found.

That means that Paul and Peter are blatantly calling Jesus BOTH "God" and "Savior."

Peter uses this construction three more times in his letter (1:11, 2:20 and 3:18), in each he describes Jesus as "Lord and Savior," and no one disputes that both of those reference the same person:

του κυριου ημων και σωτηρος ιησου χριστου

So here we have it, probably the two most prominent, most influential men in the NT (other than Jesus Himself), BOTH of whom are Jewish (so they would have very strong aversions against polytheism), in clear and plain language, they call Jesus "our God" (Paul calling him "our mighty God," which seems to be an intentional reference to Isaiah 9:6).

There is no way around this rule, much to the dismay of those who deny the deity of Jesus.

Grace and peace to you,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 10:10 AM
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Default EL (as preposition or noun)

Quote:

Which rendering is most correct in the application of 'el? or is this one of those words that mean all of these renderings are correct? i can't tell and can't go forward in by study without knowing, i've looked at Strong's and the lexicon. the rendering of this word changes the context of the rest of the prayer, specifically the word 'harken' at the begininng of v.21.

II Chronicles 6:20 -
(KJV) That thine eyes may be open upon this house day and night, upon the place whereof thou hast said that thou wouldest put thy name there; to hearken unto the prayer which thy servant prayeth toward this place.
Quote:
(BBE) That your eyes may be open to this house day and night, to this place of which you have said that you would put your name there; to give ear to the prayer which your servant may make, (God)turning to this place.

(CEV) This is the temple where you have chosen to be worshiped. Please watch over it day and night and listen when I turn toward it and pray.
(GNB) Watch over this Temple day and night. You have promised that this is where you will be worshiped, so hear me when I face this Temple and pray.

(Geneva) That thine eyes may be open toward this house day & night, euen toward the place, whereof thou hast sayde, that thou wouldest put thy Name there, that thou mayest hearken vnto the prayer, which thy seruant prayeth in this place.

(NET) Night and day may you watch over this temple, the place where you promised you would live.28 May you answer your servant's prayer for this place.
Strictly speaking, the Hebrew preposition "el" (not to be confused with the noun "el," which means "God") indicates motion toward something, but it has a LOT of different applications and contexts that give it a wide variety of actual meanings.

Depending on the context, it can mean simply motion toward or even INTO something. It can also indicate motion AGAINST something (as a negative, hostile motion). It can ALSO indicate simply being AT, BESIDE or NEAR something. Finally, it can indicate that you are IN or INSIDE something.

Metaphorically, it is used of mental or emotional agreement ("my heart is toward Jerusalem") or of conversation "about or concerning" something ("and then his conversation turned toward more pressing matters").

The preposition "el" occurs three times in this verse (using KJV):

That thine eyes may be open UPON this house day and night, UPON the place whereof thou hast said that thou wouldest put thy name there; to hearken unto the prayer which thy servant prayeth TOWARD this place.

None of them really mean "motion towards."

The first two are indicating location (Solomon wants God to "watch over" or "protect" the temple, not "move His eyes toward it"), and in this context, it seems pretty clear to me that the third "el" should mean "in" (indicating his location) or "concerning" (indicating his topic) in this verse. This is Solomon's prayer at the consecration of the temple, and in I Kings 8:22 we are told that after addressing the congregation, Solomon prayed to the Lord as he "stood before the altar" of the Lord, which now was inside the temple (although not in the "holy of holies" where the ark was found). Thus we are left with two possible meanings: the entire prayer was "about" or "concerning" the temple, or it was taking place INSIDE the temple.

Jews did not pray "facing" the temple (and "toward the temple" is nonsense when Solomon is INSIDE the temple). That leaves us with "location" or "topic" as our only real options.

Most of the occurances of the word "concerning" in English translations of Hebrew are the result of the sentence structure (and is not a direct translation of a specific word) and it is required in order for the sentence to make sense in English (so it is correct to include it, as it helps us understand the meaning of the sentence). In the following example, the word "concerning" helps us understand the construction of the sentence, and is not actually a translation of a specific word:

Exodus 6:8 And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning that which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am the LORD.

The other appearance of "concerning" in English translations is from the Hebrew word "al," which strictly speaking, means "on account of," or "because of" (that is, it usually indicates the CAUSE or the REASON, not just TOPIC). For example (using "al"):

Genesis 42:21 And they said one to another, We are verily guilty CONCERNING our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us.

Which means "we are guilty ON ACCOUNT OF WHAT WE DID TO OUR BROTHER . . . " or "BECAUSE OF WHAT WE DID TO OUR BROTHER."

So, when used metaphorically, "al" tends to indicate the cause or reason for something, while "el" tends to simply indicate the topic, or even implies agreement with a specific position or idea.

Thus, the only real conclusion we can draw is that "el" either indicates location, or means "concerning" or "about" in that verse. Ironically, the account of this incident in Kings gives us an example of "el" clearly being used to mean first "concerning" and then "in":

1 Kings 8:41-43 Moreover CONCERNING a stranger, that is not of thy people Israel, but cometh out of a far country for thy name's sake; (For they shall hear of thy great name, and of thy strong hand, and of thy stretched out arm; ) when he shall come and pray TOWARD this house; Hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to thee for: that all people of the earth may know thy name, to fear thee, as do thy people Israel; and that they may know that this house, which I have builded, is called by thy name.

The second occurance of "el" in this sentence, particularly given the context, can only mean "IN" the temple. Solomon was asking that God answer all prayers made IN the temple, even those of strangers, so that that glory and fame of God would be spread throughout all the world, and that the world would know that there was only ONE true temple: the Temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem.

So I'm thinking the most logical translation of II Chronicles 6:20 is "IN this place," (with "concerning this place" running a close second on the possibility list). It definitely does NOT mean "toward this place" as Solomon is INSIDE the temple, so that makes no sense (besides which, despite the practice at the wailing wall today, OT Jews were not directed to pray facing the temple, but to pray with their hearts toward God).

Grace and peace,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 10:12 AM
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Default Feed my sheep - John 21:15-17

lamb,sheep - tend,shepard



bosko - βόσκω = to feed, to pasture, to graze
poimaino - ποιμαίνω = to shepherd, to care for, to protect

arnion - αρνίον= little lamb, lambkin
probaton - πρόβατον = sheep

John 21:15-17 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." Jesus told him, "FEED my LAMBS." Then he said to him a second time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." Jesus told him, "TAKE CARE OF my SHEEP." He said to him a third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was deeply hurt that he had said to him a third time, "Do you love me?" So he said to him, "Lord, you know everything. You know that I love you!" Jesus told him, "FEED my SHEEP.

Jesus first commands (these are not suggestions, but being in the imperative, are commands) Peter to "Feed my little lambs," and then to "Take care of my sheep." Finally, he links the first verb with the second noun ("feed my sheep").

In the first command, bosko (feed) is primarily about giving nourishment, or herding them to the place where they get nourishment (such as letting them out into a pasture). It is noteworthy that Jesus did not use the word "lamb," but the diminutive form, "little lamb." Clearly this is a command to feed and nourish those who are young or brand new in the faith.

In the second command, poimaino (care for, shepherd) is usually translated "shepherd," from the idea that the primary responsibility of a shepherd is to watch over and protect the sheep. This word does NOT really include within its meaning the idea of FEEDING. Shepherds didn't really provide the sheep with food, they simply watched over them while the sheep ate in the pasture, and their primary responsibility was to protect them from predators, to administer aid if they were injured, and in general to make sure their basic needs were met. So this is a command to watch over, protect, guide, and care for the general need of the church.

Little lambs is definitely a reference to the brand new believers, while sheep appears to be a reference to the remaining believers (the church as a whole).

In the last command, Jesus went back to bosko, but now linked it with sheep instead of lambs.

I think the order of these commands is important, and indicates the priority or level of importance, with the first command being the most important, the second one the next, and so on.

The first responsibility of those in authority in the church is to teach and disciple the new believers to prepare them for ministry (the ultimate goal of all believers). The second responsibility is to watch over, protect, and care for the general needs of the rest of the believers, particularly as they launch out into ministry within and without the church. And finally, the last priority is to make sure the rest of the believers continue to learn, grow and mature while they minister to others. It is easy for those actively involved in ministry to neglect their own spiritual welfare until they find themselves stagnated and feeling isolated from the very God they are trying to serve.

So the last thing on the list here is to make sure those who are more mature in the faith, and thus, are in active ministry within the church, are continuing to grow spiritually, and are not stagnating in any way.

There is no assumption that little lambs can feed (teach) themselves, while there IS an assumption that the sheep as a whole can "mostly" provide for themselves, but they will require "some" teaching (teaching them comes AFTER caring for their other needs and protecting them). This shows us that the first and most vital need a new believer has is to be taught about Christianity, ideally to be discipled by a more mature believer. The primary need of the rest of the flock is to be cared for and protected, with teaching them as a secondary consideration.

Grace and peace,

Rhomphaia
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Old 10-28-2009, 10:13 AM
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Default perverse - Phi 2:15

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Phi 2:15 That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world;

My dictionary of Greek says this is a verb.
I can see it as a verb in
Act 13:8 But Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood them, seeking to turn away the deputy from the faith.

But in the above verse (Phi 2:15) it seems to used as an adjective.

Can you shed light on the use of this word?

It IS a verb, but you have just run into one of the functions that a verb has in Greek that we have no exact equivalent for in English: the participle. It is sometimes described (and functions as) a verbal adjective. Adjectives add attributes to nouns. In English, those attributes are always substantive (noun based), meaning the adjectives have either concrete or abstract noun forms ("The good man" - "What is good?" "The black dog" - "Black is Hildi's favorite color").

ONE of the functions of participles is the one found in Phillippians, where the participle can be thought of as adding a VERB attribute to the noun (usually an action). So with participles, you can add an "action" attribute to the description of a noun: "The WALKING man"; "The DYING pet"; "The crooked generation HAVING BEEN LED ASTRAY."

So the most accurate translation of that verse is probably something like this:
  • so that you may be blameless and innocent, God's children without any faults in the midst of a crooked and having been led astray generation, among whom you shine like stars in the world
or
  • so that you may be blameless and innocent, God's children without any faults in the midst of a crooked and having been corrupted generation, among whom you shine like stars in the world
or
  • so that you may be blameless and innocent, God's children without any faults in the midst of a crooked and having been morally distorted generation, among whom you shine like stars in the world
Since this produces very awkward sentences in English (and one of the functions of a translator is to produce READABLE translations), we use "translation formulas" for them, and thus a good translation would probably be something like:
  • so that you may be blameless and innocent, God's children without any faults in the midst of a warped and corrupted generation, among whom you shine like stars in the world
The "verb" aspect of the participle is "perfect passive," meaning it has completed aspect (it is a done and finished action) and passive voice (they became corrupted, as opposed to active voice, where they corrupted someone else). The "noun" aspect of the participle is "feminine, singular, genitive." The gender here is primarily because adjectives have to match nouns in gender (and "generation" is a feminine noun). It is singular (must match the number of the noun, and ONE generation is being referenced), and in the genitive case (must match the case of the noun, and "generation" is in the genitive case - "of a generation" - "in the midst OF a generation").

Participles do not indicate "time" (past, present or future).

So the point is that the attribute of "having been morally corrupted" is added to the noun "generation" along side the adjective "crooked, warped, perverted." So two of the key attributes of the generation in question is that their mind is warped and distorted (everything they think and believe is twisted and distorted), and they have become thoroughly and completely morally corrupted (the Greek word literally means "to thoroughly twist throughout")

The use of participles is so common in Greek that virtually every sentence has at least one in it, and many have two, three, four or more.

In addition to acting as verbal adjectives, they can also act as verbal nouns in which they stand in for the noun (which is implied). So if Phillippians had left out the noun "generation," the participle would probably become plural and it would read: "in the midst of the warped and morally corrupted ones" - constructions like this are VERY common in Greek.

Hope this helps.

Grace and peace,

Rhomphaia
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